free run 2 When is the smackdown on Chris

When is the smackdown on Chris Horner

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Two main blood storage procedures can be used for storing red blood cells: refrigeration and freezing. Nevertheless, the efficiency of these procedures measured as the increase in haemoglobin after reinfusion compared with baseline has never been examined. The main objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures of circulating haemoglobin by carbon monoxide rebreathing provided an opportunity to monitor recovery from anaemia, as well as the net increase in circulating haemoglobin after transfusion. RESULTS The post thaw yield of haemoglobin in the bags was 72% after refrigerated storage compared with only 52% after freezing. Nevertheless, frozen storage allowed haemoglobin to fully recover before reinfusion, while the haemoglobin was 10% lower in the refrigerated group compared with baseline. After reinfusion, the haemoglobin levels were 11 higher free run 2 than the baseline values in the group reinfused with frozen blood, while for the refrigerated group, haemoglobin levels were only 5 higher than baseline. CONCLUSION The relatively larger recovery from anaemia in the frozen group during storage more than compensated for the larger loss of haemoglobin during freezing and resulted in a larger net gain in haemoglobin. Based on the average 23 g per week recovery of haemoglobin, extending refrigerated storage to 7 8 weeks may yield sufficient time for patients to fully replenish harvested haemoglobin from three bags of blood without reliance on frozen storage of RBC.

Most Microdosing was used to keep rect high when transfusing, not to increase Hct. Makes the Off Score more believable. With the narrow window, especially with a targeted rider, I doubt the old way of direct in the vain and drink lots of water works that well anymore. There also seems to be progress on the RNA test for transfusions. That could be a game changer

I hear both, that storage leads to damage and that it is minimal. Would be interesting to know what the answer is. There are several tests being developed that focus on the storage element and the damage it does to the cells. If I am aware of them then I assume riders are as well. There is also the added issue of the sudden increase in old cells. Harder to balance your off score with EPO these days

CERA is a good example of a test that riders were not aware of. Certainly riders are talking about the microdosing EPO test today, especially after Di Luca

Some studies have reported some loss of viable cells, but I’m not aware of any studies reporting major loss or damage, to the point where it would completely eliminate the advantages of freezing.

There are tests being developed based on changes in the red cell membranes, but as 13 notes, you can’t just spring them on the peloton. The phthalate test that caught Contador by surprise is a good example. Though in the end it was allowed as supplementary evidence, it was not allowed to be used as a standalone test.

The case of CERA is somewhat different, since it was just a modification of previous tests for EPO. It had already been established that any test demonstrating the presence of synthetic EPO was valid evidence of doping, so as far as approval goes, the heavy lifting had already been accomplished. This was not case with the phthalate test, nor would it be the case with the current research on degradation of red cell membrane markers. Approval of such a test would require evidence th free run 2 at these changes are significant in transfused cells, and they don’t occur in endogenous cell populations.

I’m not sure what you mean by ‘the added issue of the sudden increase in old cells”. The fact that the cells are “old” is only relevant if there is a test for old cells, which as just discussed, does not yet exist in approved form. Transfusion of course does res free run 2 ult in an increase in mature cells, but this is masked by dilution, and its suppression of retic formation, as always, is masked by using EPO to stimulate the latter.

At the risk of being ridiculed, I will bring up the possibility of beetroot juice. IIRC, Horner was claiming he used that before? There are some studies of its effects which suggest that while on average those effects are not very great, in certain individuals (super responders?) there might be a large benefit.

Some studies have reported some loss of viable cells, but I’m not aware of any studies reporting major loss or damage, to the point where it would completely eliminate the advantages of freezing.

There are tests being developed based on changes in the red cell membranes, but as 13 notes, you can’t just spring them on the peloton. The phthalate test that caught Contador by surprise is a good example. Though in the end it was allowed as supplementary evidence, it was not allowed to be used as a standalone test.

The case of CERA is somewhat different, since it was just a modification of previous tests for EPO. It had already been established that any test demonstrating the presence of synthetic EPO was valid evidence of doping, so as far as approval goes, the heavy lifting had already been accomplished. This was not case with the phthalate test, nor would it be the case with the current research on degradation of red cell membrane markers. Approval of such a test would require evidence that these changes are significant in transfused cells, and they don’t occur in endogenous cell populations.

I’m not sure what you mean by ‘the added issue of the sudden increase in old cells”. The fact that the cells are “old” is only relevant if there is a test for old cells, which as just discussed, does not yet exist in approved form. Transfusion of course does result in an increase in mature cells, but this is masked by dilution, and its suppression of retic formation, as always, is masked by using EPO to stimulate the latter.

At the risk of being ridiculed, I will bring up the possibility of beetroot juice. IIRC, Horner was claiming he used that before? There are some studies of its effects which suggest that while on average those effects are not very great, in certain individuals (super responders?) there might be a large benefit.

There are several testes being funded by WADA. One focused on the damage storage does cells. Given we have heard about this for years I doubt it will go anywhere. The other is focused on the age of the cells. As it is based on a test that is already in use in the medical world it has a higher likelihood of being used soon, in fact it was supposed to be used for the London Olympics. A sudden influx of old cells could be picked up by the RNA test but it would also make your Off Score wacky if you cant micro dose EPO to keep your rect up

If you read through the entire Abstract, they find that transfusing frozen cells actually resulted in a significantly larger boost than transfusing refrigerated cells. So as I said, nothing here to encourage anyone to use refrigerated rather than frozen cells.

Second, while they report that Hb was decreased by 50% in the frozen cells, after reinfusion, there was an increase of 11.5% over baseline. I haven seen the whole article, but an 11.5% increase would correspond to about 800 ml of packed cells, or 1.6 l of packed cells of which 50% were dead. I doubt very much they infused 1.6 l. of packed cells, so the 50% figure apparently does not refer to dead cells, but rather to inactive hemoglobin on cells (I use quotes, because red cells are not nucleated, and not really alive in the sense that most cells in the body are, anyway). IOW, after freezing, about half the hemoglobin was inactivated (versus about 30% on refrigerated cells), but after thawing and reinfusion, this hemoglobin apparently recovered (or was replaced by normal hemoglobin).

Again, I emphasize that I haven read the whole article, and am not quite sure what they are saying, but the data in the Abstract are not consistent with any dead cells, let alone 50%. Frankly, I doubt the researchers would have infused the volunteers with blood that contained a 50% population of dead cells. Anyone who has read Tyler’s book (or followed the Ricco drama) knows that you can get very sick this way. It seems to me that this would be highly unethical and unallowed in a clinical trial.

There are a number of approac free run 2 hes being tried. I’ll just point out that “damaged” vs. “age” is not really a clear distinction. The point is that cells that have been removed from the body and reinfused undergo certain molecular changes. Whether one refers to such changes as damage or the result of aging is somewhat arbitrary. Aging is a damaging process. The wrinkles in our skin, the weaker muscles, the slower reaction times, etc., etc., that accompany aging are all the results of tissue damage of some kind.